Two relatively recent surveys have provided information about the level of homework undertaken by pupils in the UK. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of homework? One approach to homework, which has been relatively little explored at school level despite its introduction in higher education, is collaborative working. However, this may simply reflect the economic and educational status of the family, a known strong predictor of educational attainment, rather than indicating that this equipment of itself will assist students in increasing their attainment. Cooper et al demonstrated that students’ attitudes towards homework did not predict homework completion or classroom grade. Once again there was large variation between schools MacBeath and Turner Other editions – View all Homework:
Exploring the relationships between five after-school activities and academic achievement they reported that pupils who spent more time on extracurricular activities and less time watching TV or in employment achieved significantly higher test scores and better teacher assigned grades. Farrow et al , researching in England, found that frequency of doing homework was related to positive attitudes to school among Year 6 pupils but these data did not hold at the level of the school. On balance it seems likely that children will still be asking to undertake homework, but schools must take the lead in redefining the homework agenda and putting student learning at its centre. In the communities where their research was undertaken, men tended to maintain a clearer distinction between time at work and time off work when they relaxed. Susan Hallam’s extensive review of the literature on homework starts with a brief overview of the history, nature and purpose of homework and then reviews research on its effect on pupils’ attainment.
At primary school, Farrow et al found that the amount of homework undertaken was related to cultural capital. Pupils often report that homework has little relationship to the work in hand, it is poorly set, marked late, and that there is a lack of pupil-teacher interaction resulting in poor feedback Le Metais ; Heller et al ; Rosenberg ; Ulrich ; Bechler ; Hodapp and Hodapp Overall, the findings suggest that doing homework in teams can improve achievement for most students.
In mathematics, where a certain amount of work may be set, even those who enjoy mathematics will be limited in the amount of time they spend, while those who find it difficult and may enjoy it evifence may take longer to complete homework.
Teachers can only encourage students to be self-aware of the environmental and self-states which most support their learning and to attempt to ensure that that they are optimal when homework is being completed.
While some evidence suggests that undertaking part-time employment is not related to time tbe on homework Holmes and Crollit can have a serious impact on study time and motivation to study MacBeath and Turnerparticularly if the hours of part time hommework are excessive McKechnie et al Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. However, many feel that it is boring and not always related to the work they are currently doing.
For students with high levels of self-perceived homework achievement and positive attitudes towards homework, motivation was influenced by parents and teachers. And teachers in the USA evidencf less emphasis to the importance of homework than their counterparts in the other countries.
In the communities where their research was undertaken, men tended to maintain a clearer distinction between time at work and time off work when they relaxed.
There are also cultural differences. As pupils progress through secondary school the time of starting work tends to be later. Vy way that students approach their homework has been explored as a means of explaining differences in achievement. Some also said that it could be interesting or fun MacBeath and Turner Out of school boys tended to spend more time in larger groups involved in sport whereas girls spent more time with a single close friend, which might involve working with them on homework.
In science the positive effect was not as marked as that for reading.
Pupils’ perspectives on homework
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While verbal material often acts as a distraction Mitchellthe effect of music can be positive Miller ; Mitchell although complex multi-faceted models are necessary to account for its effects Hallam and Katsarou While there is considerable evidence that as pupils get older they do more homework, there is little research that has explored changes in pupils’ attitudes towards homework.
Apart from homework the most common leisure activity reported by school pupils in the UK is watching TV. On balance it seems likely that children will still be asking to undertake homework, but schools must take the lead in redefining the homework agenda and putting student learning at its centre. These are sensible and reasonable demands.
Homework: The Evidence – Susan Hallam – Google Books
In Scotland MacBeath and Turner found that in a typical evening primary pupils and their parents agreed that they had homework that took less than an hour.
Homework was perceived as easier if it was better explained, if there was less of it, if it was more interesting, if there was more time to do it, and if there was someone to help. This distinction did not apply to eidence who, while holding a job, still worked in the domestic role at home. Higher Education and Lifelong Learning.
Primary school children tend to do their homework as soon as they get in from school or in the early evening. Susan Hallam’s extensive review of the literature on homework starts with a brief overview of the history, nature and purpose of homework and then reviews research on hojework effect on pupils’ attainment.
Not understanding what was expected of them also generated negative attitudes Ofsted Aksoy and Link found that extra daily minutes spent in mathematics classes and in doing homework increased student maths test scores while extra hours per day of watching television negatively impacted on test scores.
Hong and Milgram suggest that pupils cannot always work in the way they prefer because of physical or parental constraints. Shopping Basket Your shopping cart is empty Visit the shop. In the UK there seems to be little tradition of working with friends in doing homework although phone calls may be made to clarify issues MacBeath and Turner ; MacBeath Primary school girls also tend to perceive that teachers always mark their work Keys et al Several studies suggest that lower achieving pupils and those with special needs should have homework assignments tailored to their needs.